“Selective catalytic conversion of biobased carbohydrates to formic acid using molecular oxygen”R. Wolfel, N. Taccardi, A. Bosmann, P. Wasserscheid, Green Chemistry, 2011, DOI: 10.1039/c1gc15434f
All of us have a very personal relationship to the oxidizing power of oxygen. We use oxygen to turn our food into energy, CO2 and water. There are a number of enzymes and pathways that aid this process, each aiding the reaction of food and oxygen toward the creation of CO2 and water. Now the key to turning complex biomass into usable small molecules is the ability to control this reaction so that we can extract usable chemical building blocks without ending up back at CO2 and water. As you can see in this video over-oxidation can be a real concern. This paper demonstrates the use of a polyoxometalate (POM) catalyst to promote the oxidation of biomass to formic acid.
“Assessment of the physico-chemical behavior of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments using multi-dimensional parameter testing” von der Kammer, F.; Ottofuelling, S.; Hofmann, T. Environ. Pollut. 2010, 158, 3472-3481. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.05.007
In order to rationally design nanoparticles that are environmentally benign, we need to be able to accurately predict their environmental fate (i.e. will they travel long distances through waterways, get stuck in soils or sediments, etc?). Though relatively robust modeling tools are available for predicting the environmental fate of organic chemicals, analogous tools for nanoparticles are in their infancy. This is largely due to the insane variety of nanoparticle properties (e.g., composition, size, shape, surface chemistry, etc) that can be varied, resulting in an equally insane variety of nanoparticles to study. In addition, we know very little about any of these nanoparticles. One important property that controls the environmental fate of nanoparticles is their propensity to aggregate together and fall out of suspension, potentially limiting their environmental mobility.